12 September 2020

John O'Keeffe Killed in Front of Washington Hall Hotel in 1852

Ireland native John O'Keeffe, born about 1808, had been a resident of Macon, Bibb County, Georgia "for many years" when he was killed on 11 December 1852. His wife Ellen placed a gravestone for him in the Oak Ridge Section of Rose Hill Cemetery.

In Memory of
A native of Westmeath, Ireland.
For many years a resident of Macon.
His acquirements as a scholar and
deportment as a citizen obtained for
him to his last moment the respect and
consideration of all who knew him...
Requiescant in Pace.

Death notice from Wednesday, 15 December 1852 Georgia Journal and Messenger (Macon, GA):

Death of John O'Keefe.
On Saturday night, about twelve o'clock, John O'Keefe was killed in front of the Washington Hall, by John T. Boyd, a journeyman saddler in the employ of Wm. T. Mix & Co., of this city. Mr. O'Keefe was a native of Ireland; but had resided in this place for many years, quietly and unobtrusively pursuing his occupation as a school teacher.

On Monday morning Boyd was committed to await his trial for murder, at the next term of the Superior Court of this County.

"Mulberry Street at Second Street Macon, Georgia"
© 2011 Ken Lund (CC-BY-SA 2.0)
Washington Hall was located at the NW corner of
Second and Mulberry streets.
The killing seemed to result from a strange encounter between O'Keeffe and Boyd after a night out at the bar. Testimony published in the 17 May 1853 Georgia Telegraph (Macon, GA):

Bibb Superior Court.
The State vs. John T. Boyd } Murder.
JOHN SPRINGER SWORN -- I do not recollect the day of the month, when the circumstances took place. But it was on the night of the day of the election of the Mayor and Aldermen, the election was in December, 1852; the circumstances took place in the county of Bibb, in Georgia, near the Washington Hall.

I was in company with John O'Keeffe, coming diagonally across from Macarthy's Bar Room towards the Washington Hall, O'Keeffe had my left arm. Just as we were striking the sidewalk, we discovered a gentleman, who since proved to be Mr. Boyd, on the inside of the sidewalk, walking in the same direction that we were going. Mr. O'Keeffe hailed twice or thrice, saying, Who is that? or something to that purport. No answer being made, O'Keeffe let go my arm and advanced into the inside of the walk, where Boyd was; a scuffle or fray immediately ensued, they fell, Mr. O'Keeffe falling on top. I ran up, caught hold of O'Keeffe, exclaiming John, quit, attempted to pull them up; and in the attempt fell myself, and they fell again also. I recovered from the fall, caught hold of O'Keeffe again, and raised him up, he was not difficult to raise. He seemed to be in a staggering condition, and said that he was a dead man, that, that man had killed him.

I eased him down as gently as I could, on the pavement, and said to Mr. Boyd, you have killed O'Keeffe, and must not leave. Whereupon, Boyd said, good God! is he dead! I went then to the Washington Hall with Mr. Boyd, gave the alarm, and gave notice of what had occurred. I know nothing more of the case at this time, unless it was the fact, that when we reached the Washington Hall, Mr. Boyd showed two knives, and designated the one which he had killed O'Keeffe.

I do not think O'Keeffe had a knife. When O'Keeffe haild Boyd, it was in a usual tone of voice. Can not identify the prisoner at the bar with Boyd. Mr. O'Keefe died immediately, I think from the effect of the wounds.

SPRINGER CROSS-EXAMINED -- John O'Keeffe and myself were coming from Macarthy's Bar Room; said Bar Room is this side of the Lanier House, on the right side of the street as you go up. We were crossing so as to strike this side of the Washington Hall, Boyd was going up towards the Washington Hall from Strohecker's corner, on the inside of the sidewalk.

Boyd was near the Barber Shop when we first noticed him, about half way, he did not stop when O'Keeffe hailed him.

When O'Keeffe started towards Boyd we were about square with Boyd. Boyd kept walking on. I said to O'Keeffe, let him alone John, he has as much right to the sidewalk as we have. O'Keeffe did not stop till he reached Boyd. I do not suppose it was more than a second, after they caught hold of each other, before they fell. I did not fall on O'Keeffe and Boyd, but fell over them on the pavement.

After raising O'Keeffe, he made no attempt to run at Boyd again. O'Keeffe said nothing about being hurt, until he was raised completely up, and said he was a dead man, nor do I think he made any further complaints.

I saw no cutting or knives when they were engaged together. I cannot swear that O'Keeffe did not have a knife, nor did I see any knife until afterwards at the Washington Hall. It was in the inside of the Washington Hall, that Boyd designated the knife with which he had killed O'Keeffe.

The night was dark, and there was no moon that I know of. From the confusion that I was in, after falling and getting up, many things might have happened without my knowing it. After getting into the Washington Hall, some conversation occurred between Mr. Dense, Mr. Boyd and myself, in relation to the occurrence. I do not recollect what I said, but suppose what I said was true, as the facts were then fresh in my mind.

If I made any statement to Mr. Dense in regard to O'Keeffe's jumping on Boyd, it was under excitement, and not as the thing occurred.

There was an unusual interest taken in the City Election, I suppose.

There was no light on the sidewalk when the difficulty occurred.

WILLIAM T. MIX SWORN -- I saw Mr. Boyd on the night when the killing took place, at about a quarter of six o'clock, it was on the 11th December, the day when the City Elections took place.

THOMAS WILLIAMS SWORN -- I was present at the examination before the Mafistrates, on the Monday after the difficulty took place. I identify the prisoner at the bar as the John T. Boyd who was up before the Magistrates that day.

DR. A. PYE SWORN -- I examined Mr. O'Keeffe when I was called to see him, found one mortal wound on his left breast, which seemed to have caused his death, there were other cuts, but none that I deemed serious. It was Sunday morning, after breakfast, when I called to see him, 'twas after the Coroner's inquest. I do not recollect more than four distinct wounds -- the wounds seemed to have been made with a knife. The mortal wound was right above the fourth rib...the wound ranged up, seeming to have entered between the 4th and 5th rib, and ranged upwards.

PYE CROSS EXAMINED -- I think that if they were lying down, the wound might have ranged upwards, if they were standing front to front, the knife would probably have entered straighter, everything depends on the way the knife was held. There were two wounds in the back, both ranging upwards, both of which might have been made either while they were standing up or lying down.

I did not examine the wound under the left arm, and am unable to say whether it ranged up or down.

The same paper also published the following on the same day:

Bibb Superior Court.
The Spring Term of this Court commenced a week ago yesterday, his honor Judge Powers, presiding. We give, in another column, the testimony in the case of John T. Boyd, charged with the murder of John O'Keefe...After a consultation of several hours, the Jury returned a verdict of "Guilty of Involuntary Manslaughter."

I don't know what punishment (if any) came to Mr. Boyd.

(As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases.)

12 July 2020

Dispositions Contained in the Will of Meyer G. Schwed (d. 1885)

Upon his death in 1885, Meyer G. Schwed was laid to rest next to his wife Minnie in the Hebrew Burial Ground section of Rose Hill Cemetery. This first Jewish cemetery in Macon, Bibb County, Georgia was established in 1844. When Congregation Beth Israel was born in 1859, it took over the grounds.

I can't offer much concrete information about Meyer and Minnie, but his will (dated 14 August 1883) sure left a lot of clues. Here are some excerpts:

3 - Item - I want to be buried next to my beloved wife on my lot in Rose Hill Cemetery in the grounds of the Congregation Beth Israel. I want my said executors, hereinafter named, to have a monument erected over me as neat like that now over my wife as can be procured but it is not to cost over Four Hundred Dollars ($400.00)

4 - Item - $1000 to Congregation Beth Israel of Macon, Georgia to be invested in United States bonds or other good securities, bearing no less than four (4) per cent interest per annum, the interest from which shall be annually appropriated to keeping in repair & beautifying my said lot in the grounds of said Congregation in said Rose Hill Cemetery.

5 - Item - $500 to the Jewish Congregation Aschenhausen, Province of Lochsen [Sachsen?] Weimar Eisenach, Germany upon the conditions hereinafter stated...that they shall burn a light & say Kadish annually upon the anniversary of my death.

6 - Item - $1000 to Macon Lodge No. 5 F. A. M. of Macon, Ga. upon the conditions hereinafter named...the same shall be invested...which annual interest shall be used...in defraying the expenses of such re-union & entertainment by said lodge as they may deem appropriate to commemorate the anniversary of my death.

7 - Item - $2000 to parents Samuel and Matilda Schwed;
$3000 to brother Marcus Schwed;
$1000 to sister Rebecca Dankwerth;
$1000 to brother Lippman Schwed;
$1000 to brother Seligman Schwed if alive & his whereabouts can be ascertained within five (5) years after my death;
$1000 to brother Joseph Schwed;
$500 to sister Sarah Werzburg;
$500 to wife's brother Siegfried Lilienthal;
$500 to wife's brother Leonard Lilienthal;
$500 to wife's sister, wife of my esteemed friend Albert Gibian, Julia Gibian;
$500 to wife's nephew Julian Gibian;
$500 to wife's niece Mamie Gibian;
$500 to niece Essie Schwed;
$500 to nephew Isadore Schwed;
$1000 to niece Emma Dankwerth;
$500 to nephew Max Dankwerth.

8 - Item - ...to my namesake, M. G. Schwed Berkner, son of my esteemed friend Henry J. Berkner...$500.

9 - Item - ...to my namesake Herman Schwed Hertwig, son of my esteemed friend Herman Hertwig...$500.

10 - Item - $500 to esteemed friend Alexander Proudfit, Esq. [one of the named executors]

12 - Item - to Essie Schwed proceeds of my life policy for $1000 in the New York Mutual Life Insurance Company.

13 - Item - to Mamie Gibian proceeds of my life policy...in the Equitable Life Assurance Society of New York for $2500.

14 - Item - to Marcus Schwed proceeds of my One Thousand Dollar life policy in the Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance Company, also the proceeds of my certificate for $2000 in the Ancient Order of United Workmen, also the proceeds [of] my certificate for $2000 in the Order of Knights of Pythias.

17 - Item - to my wife's sister, Julia Gibian, all my wife's clothes and paraphernalia.

21 - Item - At my death I desire my will translated into German & transmitted to the beneficiaries thereunder who may then reside in Germany.

Meyer believed his estate was valued at about $21,000.

He died 11 May 1885. An obituary from 18 May 1885 Morning Journal-Courier (New Haven, Connecticut):
Death of a Macon Merchant.
The Atlanta Constitution announces the death May 11 of M. G. Schwed, a prominent wholesale grocer of Macon, Georgia, aged thirty-six years...His firm were erecting a large and handsome business house in Macon. Deceased was a brother of Marcus Schwed, of this city, and formerly lived here.
I also found mention -- more than once -- in the local newspaper of the Macon Masons honoring the wishes of Mr. Schwed. Here's a clipping from the 11 May 1901 Macon Telegraph -- published sixteen years after his death (which incorrectly stated it was celebrating his birth).

The Masons of Macon Will Enjoy the Feast Provided for in the Will of the Deceased Member of the Macon Lodge.

The Masons of Macon will tonight celebrate the anniversary of the birth of M. G. Schwed, the story of whose will has been annually told in these columns since his death. He provided that a certain sum of money should be invested by Macon lodge, and the proceeds from the investment should be used each year for making merry on the anniversary of his birth. The Masons find it very easy to carry out his wishes in the matter, and tonight they will gather at the asylum of Macon lodge and do as the will directs.
Minnie, beloved wife of M. G. Schwed, died 16 April 1879 at age 26.

(As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases.)

10 July 2020

Sgt. Thomas Christian Heidelberg, III (d. 1864)

The image below captures but a small portion of Soldier's Square in Macon, Georgia's Rose Hill Cemetery. Behind and to the left of the centered stone placed for John Smith is a similar marker placed for Thomas Christian Heidelberg, III.

Soon after the American Civil War, Jane Lumsden Hardeman led the charge of "removing the remains of soldiers from graves scattered around the Confederate hospitals" in Bibb County to Old City and Rose Hill cemeteries "and erected wooden headboards at each mound with the name, company, regiment, and date of death of each soldier." [Historical Marker] The number of Confederate dead in Soldier's Square at Rose Hill Cemetery numbers above 600.

Thomas C. Heidelberg, III was one such soldier. He was born about 1836 in Mississippi. In May 1862 he enlisted as a Private in Co. H, 27th Mississippi Infantry. The headstone placed for him erroneously puts Thomas in the 29th Miss., though it does concur with the Roll of Honor published in the Macon Telegraph in 1866.

A couple of months into his service, Thomas spent some time "in hospital at Mobile," but definitely had returned to his company by the fall of 1862.

The following year, Thomas (now a sergeant) was "wounded battle Lookout Mt. Nov 24, 1863 & sent to hospital by order Brigade surgeon." Furthermore, according to his service records, Thomas "Appears on a LIST of killed, wounded and missing, of Walthall's Brigade, in the engagement of Lookout Mountain, Tenn., (Nov. 24, 1863.)" List dated Camp near Dalton, Ga Dec 18, 1863, with remarks: mortally wounded.

Thomas must have survived, though. He was with his company leading up to the Battle of Jonesborough (Jonesboro) in Clayton County, Georgia. Curiously, a card from his service file states he was admitted to a hospital near Jonesboro on 27 August 1864. This was a few days before the battle, yet the same card cites the dates of the battle, and a subsequent card seems to give an injury date of 31 August 1864. Lack of a precise date notwithstanding, Thomas quite possibly was wounded in that battle. A gunshot wound fractured his "middle third left femur." Field treatment received was a "simple dressing" 10 hours after injury.

I cannot imagine the pain.

At least a week would pass before Thomas arrived at Ocmulgee Hospital in Macon (approximately 70 miles south of Jonesboro). I presume an infection had set in at the wound site, as his medical card stated his leg was amputated.

Sixteen days after that last hospital admittance, on 24 September 1864, Thomas Christian Heidelberg, III died. At Ocmulgee Hospital in Macon, Georgia -- more than 400 miles from his home in Jasper County, Mississippi.
We see their gory forms in long procession, embracing the epauletted leader and private soldier, the beardless youth and gray haired sire, the strong and middle-aged, the wan and weary, whole hecatombs, indeed, who went down amid the crash of battle and with garments rolled in blood. Others, not less brave, appear stark and stiff in the hospitals where, too, with equal devotion they had yielded their lives a Holocaust for liberty. -- "Roll of Honor Republished," 26 April 1878, Macon Telegraph and Messenger

(As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases.)

19 June 2020

Jane Armistead Taliaferro: an Accomplished Young Lady Unlucky in Love

Well, unlucky in marriage, at least.

With my first glance at Jane's gravestone in Rose Hill Cemetery, I made two hypotheses:

(1) Jane's maiden name was Armisted, and
(2) Henry's middle name was Colt.

Maybe you can see how I did that.

...And I was wrong in both instances.

Jane Armiste(a)d Taliaferro was born about 1839 in Caroline County, Virginia to Louisa G. Armistead and Charles C. Taliaferro. She first married Dr. Cassius Carter on 18 June 1856 in Orange County, VA. About a month later, Dr. Carter was dead. The 11 August 1856 Alexandria Gazette published the following:
Recently, in Orange County, Virginia, in the thirty-first year of his age, Dr. CASSIUS CARTER, of Prince William. The deceased had been united in marriage but a few hours to an accomplished young lady when, amid the innocent festivities common to such occasions, he was arrested by the hand of death. The mysterious dispensation filled many hearts with the deepest grief...
 So Jane was first widowed about age 17.

Seven years would pass before Jane married again. This time, the groom was John Hill Lamar of Macon, Bibb County, Georgia. Though it ended in a Confederate victory, Col. Lamar fell in the Battle of Monocacy (Maryland) six months later. Following from the 21 July 1864 edition of the Macon Telegraph:
...We get sad news from the 61st Georgia. The Colonel and Lieutenant Colonel of the regiment were both killed at the battle of Monocacy. Both were valued citizens of Macon. Col. John Hill Lamar was quite young, and within the present year married an accomplished and beautiful young lady of Virginia. A more gallant ingenious and right-minded youth never perished on [the] battle-field. He was with all a fine officer, and very popular with his command...
Jane was widowed again about age 25. She had to think, "Are you kidding me?" In a span of about eight years, Jane had been married twice. Yet, she actually only spent about seven months as a married woman. For all the other years, she was Widow Carter/Lamar.

Finally, on 19 September 1870, Jane Armiste(a)d Taliaferro Carter Lamar got married for the last time. To Henry Coit Day, son of Mary Jane Crocker and Charles Day. The couple settled in Brunswick, Glynn County, Georgia as Henry was an agent for the Macon & Brunswick Railroad. About September 1873, the couple had a daughter named Mary. Jane died the following month at about age 34.

Daily Telegraph and Messenger (Macon, GA)
2 October 1873 - pg. 4
Death of Mrs. Day.
Mrs. Henry C. Day died in this city at the residence of Rev. J. W. Hinton, at half past one o'clock yesterday morning. Mrs. Day's maiden name was Taliaferro. She was a native of Virginia, and married Col. John Hill Lamar, who command [sic] the 61st Georgia regiment. Col. Lamar was killed at the battle of Monocacy Junction, and shortly after Mrs. Lamar came to this city, where she remained until her marriage with Mr. Henry C. Day, some three years ago. She was a most amiable and charming lady, and had a multitude of friends here who will regret to hear of her death. She had been living in Brunswick for some time, her husband being agent of the M. & B. R. R., but her health being bad, she came to Macon with the hope of being benefited. But alas, she came too late. She arrived here only last Friday, and died as stated, yesterday morning, leaving an infant about a month old...

(As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases.)

05 June 2020

"Paramount" James H. Blount (1837-1903) and the Overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom

The "Blount Angel" standing in the Central Avenue Division of Rose Hill Cemetery marks the spot of the final resting place of James Henderson Blount and family.

James H. Blount (b. 1837) was a lawyer, a Lieutenant Colonel in the Confederate Army's Floyd Rifles of Georgia, a United States Congressman (D), and a commissioner to the Hawaiian Islands. It's this last post of duty I want to highlight here. Upon Blount's death in March 1903, the following was published in Honolulu, Hawaii's Pacific Commercial Advertiser.


Cleveland's Paramount Commissioner Succumbs to a Long Illness, Dying of Lung Trouble.

His Busy Life and Connection With the Affairs of Hawaii at the Time of the Hauling Down of the Flag, Raised by the United States Minister, Ten Years Ago.

MACON, Ga., March 8. -- James H. Blount, former member of Congress from this district, who has been known for ten years as "Paramount" by reason of the appointment as commissioner to investigate affairs in Hawaii, died at his home here today. His lungs have been affected for some years and he has weakened steadily since two years ago he was stricken with paralysis.

"Paramount" Blount is dead! There are few people in Hawaii who do not know the part he played in the making of the history of this country. During the last couple of years of his life he has been suffering from paralysis.

He was born in Macon, Georgia, on Sept. 12, 1837, and represented the Sixth District of his native state in Congress continuously from 1872 until March 4, 1893, and during that time played an important part in the making of the laws of the United States. Shortly before the expiration of his last term he received unprecedented tribute from his fellow-members of Congress, who, knowing that he had declined a renomination, interrupted the proceedings of the House in order that Judge Holman of Indiana might deliver a eulogy upon Blount's public services...

Blount was dispatched to Hawaii in the capacity of special United States Commissioner by President Cleveland in March, 1893, for the purpose of ascertaining the advantages of disadvantages of annexation and the sentiment of both whites and natives.

For some time after the 4th of March, 1893, rumors reached here that President Cleveland, having withdrawn the treaty of annexation which Messrs. Castle, Carter, Marsden, Wilder and Thurston went to Washington to negotiate, would send a commissioner here to look into the events leading up to and following the revolution that dethroned the Queen...Finally, however, the rumors simmered down to Blount and one fine morning he appeared on a revenue cutter commanded by Captain Hooper. He brought with him his wife and his private secretary, Ellis H. Mills, afterwards United States Consul General.

A great crowd gathered at the boat-landing. Native women, dressed  in white and carrying leis and the flag of Hawaii, thronged to the edge of the dock ready to welcome the stranger whom they thought would restore the Queen. Wealthy residents, supporters of the provisional Government, were there to extend private hospitality. Esbank, the beautiful residence of Mrs. S. G. Wilder, on Judd street, had been secured for Colonel Blount's use, rent free. The crowds waited long at the landing, but the Paramount Commissioner did not appear. He had taken a look at the throng through Captain Hooper's binoculars and wished to avoid it. Finally a barge left the side of the cutter and swiftly made its way towards the landing, the Hawaiian women frantically waving their flags. But Colonel Blount was not aboard. The boat only bore Ellis Mills, who, with a brisk air of importance, mounted the dock, official packet in hand, and took a hack for the Government building. An hour or two later when the crowd was thinned out the Commissioner was landed. A private carriage was in waiting but he declined it and took a hack for the Hawaiian Hotel, where he was assigned to the Snow cottage.

That evening there was a mighty concourse of Hawaiians on the hotel grounds. Berger's band had been crippled, at the time of the revolution, by the withdrawal of most of its native members who had formed a band of their own under the leadership of an East Indian named Libornio. The Hawaiian Hotel being a Royalist headquarters, the Libornio band was employed to play on the grounds. On the night of Blount's arrival it occupied the band stand. Owing to an unhappy fluke it opened the program by playing "Marching Through Georgia," the most distasteful air, perhaps, that the ex-Confederate Georgian Commissioner could have heard. But he bore up manfully. The next day, however, when Berger's band played the same tune for him he wrote about it -- a line or two -- in his official report. Having seen Georgian fields devastated by Sherman's army and having been chased about the State by Sherman's men, any reference, musical or otherwise, to the famous march was gall and wormwood to him.

What would the Paramount Commissioner do? His official call on President Dole had been reassuring. The credentials he handed over were couched in friendly phrase and he said nothing which led people to suppose that he would put an end to the protectorate which Minister Stevens had ordained. At least he said nothing to the public. Minister Stevens, however, had seen bad signs. In meeting him Blount had been more than cool; had declined to say much about the situation; had, in fact, intimated that the United States Minister was a bit superfluous, and that the annexation policy was the work of adventurers.

...One morning the Advertiser startled the town with the brief announcement that, by direction of Commissioner Blount, the American flag would be hauled down from the Government building (Judiciary) at 11 a.m., and the Stevens protectorate ended. It was worth the crisis to see the outburst of American feeling that followed. From over a hundred private flagstaffs the Stars and Stripes were unfurled to the morning breeze and almost every American one met had the patriotic button of the Annexation Club in his lapel. The Hawaiian regiment and battery of artillery at once went under arms. There was a half-defined fear that that Royalists would rise and try to restore the Queen; but the Royalists themselves looked to Blount to do that. One of those wild rumors of restoration had gone about and the Queen's friends were content to await the action of Cleveland's representative. Natives by the hundred, on foot and in carriages, went to the Palace Square. As the hour of eleven approached the bluejackets came into the Government building to perform the act of relinquishment. After them, company by company, came the Provisional troops, and the crowd outside the fence which enclosed the acre about Kamehameha's statue saw little hope for the Queen in the glint of series steel and the frowning mouths of cannon.

The change of flags was very simple. A bugle blew and the Stars and Stripes came down on the run, the halliards in the sinewy hands of a Jack Tar. Five minutes later there was a ruffle of drums, a flourish of brass and the Hawaiian flag, bent on by a soldier of the Provisional Government, went to the masthead. Guards were posted and the crowds dispersed.

The day the flag came down was on or near the fiftieth anniversary of the hauling down of the British flag that had been raised by Lord Paulet.

Blount now began his investigation. People soon saw that he was hopelessly biased against the American colony. The members of it were mostly from the North, directly or by descent; Minister Stevens was a typical Yankee; the Paramount Commissioner was a rank Jeff Davis man, only reconstructed far enough to hold a Federal office. Whenever Hawaiian Americans called on Blount he treated them brusquely, unless, indeed, they were anxious to say a word for the Queen. Royalists, especially native Royalists, he received with open arms. His intimate companions were Claus Spreckels and Charles Nordhoff; the most frequent guests, other than the two gentlemen named, were the late ministers of the crown. Some men of the highest character on the annexation side were unable to get their testimony before Mr. Blount while any man on the Royalist side had a stenographic hearing. There was no surprise, therefore, when, a few weeks afterward, the mail brought back the text of Blount's conclusions, namely, that the revolution of 1893 had taken place under such auspices as the throw the responsibility for it upon the armed forces of the United States.
In his July 1893 report, Blount stated "United States diplomatic and military representatives had abused their authority and were responsible for the change in government." President Cleveland acknowledged "substantial wrong" had been done and deemed the "honorable course" was "to restore as far as practicable the status existing at the time or our forcible intervention." The matter was referred to the U.S. Congress, where the Senate Foreign Relations Committee (which overwhelmingly favored annexation) proceeded to perform an investigation of their own in order to discredit Blount. President Cleveland's "honorable course" stalled, and the so-called Provisional Government was recognized.

In 1993, the Apology Resolution was passed by Congress. It stated, "the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii occurred with active participation of agents and citizens of the United States and...the Native Hawaiian people never directly relinquished to the United States their claims to their inherent sovereignty as a people over their national lands, either through the Kingdom of Hawaii or through a plebiscite or referendum."

Just over a month after Blount's death, on 13 April 1903, the same Pacific Commercial Advertiser published a more critical article about his role in the annexation of Hawaii:


In the career of Hon. James H. Blount of Georgia, who died on March 8, there is an impressive warning against the fatuous policy of hauling down the American flag in Territory over which it has been raised in conformity with right and justice. Mr. Blount was for twenty years a member of Congress, a gentleman of spotless character, exalted ideals, and magnificent ability, whose services were both honorable and brilliant. But when, as "Minister Paramount" from the United States in 1893 he hauled down the American flag in the Hawaiian Islands, where it had been honorable raised with the full consent and at the urgent request of the recognized authorities, his public usefulness ceased forever, and his official career ended in eclipse. Judge Blount's integrity was beyond the shadow of distrust; his motives were unassailable, and he profoundly believed that the act he performed in Hawaii in obedience to positive instructions from President Cleveland was right and proper. But it was revolting to the sense of the American people, who regarded it as a national humiliation and who placed upon it the indelible seal of their displeasure. Great events since 1893 have fully vindicated the policy of American expansion which Judge Blount, as the representative of a short-sighted policy, unwisely opposed...[T]he memory of the proceeding lingers still, and it is forever nourished by the deep resolve of the people that where the American flag is placed it shall remain, and that the man who removes it from the territory honorably acquired shall forfeit the suffrage of his fellow citizens. -- Army and Navy Journal.
Finally, here's a more traditional obituary from the 9 March 1903 Savannah Morning News (Georgia):


Distinguished Georgian's Life Is Ended Suddenly.
Macon, Ga., March 8. -- Ex-Congressman James H. Blount died suddenly to-day. He had suffered from a stroke of paralysis a couple of years ago, but had been steadily improving. His son, Judge James H. Blount, Jr., from the Philippines, was with him at the time of his death, but he would have returned to the Philippines next week to resume his duties as judge of the United States courts.

Ex-Congressman Blount was the special commissioner appointed by President Cleveland to investigate the condition of affairs in Hawaii. His report to the government is known to have been in sympathy with the claims of Liliuokalani, but it came too late to save her from overthrow, as public sentiment had already crystallized in favor of the Dole party.

...He spent the last ten years of his life farming, from which he received an income of about $7,000 per annum.

In November, 1893, Mr. Blount left public life and since remained quietly at home attending to his private business. He was a lawyer by profession, but had not been in active practice for many years.

During the Civil War he was lieutenant colonel of an independent battalion of cavalry in the Western Department. He was one of the largest land owners in Middle Georgia and a man of wealth. He leaves a wife and four children -- Judge James H. Blount, Jr., of the Court of First Instance at Large in the Philippines; Joseph Blount of Washington, D.C., with the Interstate Commerce Commission; Mrs. Walter D. Lamar of Macon, and an unmarried daughter, Fannie.
James's wife Eugenia, and children Dorothy Lamar and J. H., Jr. are all buried together in Rose Hill Cemetery.

James Henderson Blount was a son of Thomas Blount, Jr. (1768-1840) and Mary Ricketts (d. 1845). This is according to Mrs. Eugenia Dorothy Blount Lamar's entry in a Daughters of the American Revolution Lineage Book, Vol. 117, published 1915.
Blog Widget by LinkWithin